Publications

Publications

Clinical Research cerebral MRI findings in HIV positive subjects and appropriate controls

Clinical Research cerebral MRI findings in HIV positive subjects and appropriate controls

Authors

Chhabra S, Underwood J, Cole JH, Waldman A, Sabin CA, Sharp DJ, Winston A

Lay summary

We used information that has been collected as part of brain scans performed among some participants in the POPPY study to study any abnormalities that may show up on these scans.  Whilst these brain abnormalities were relatively common (just under a half of scans showed an abnormality) there was no tendency for these abnormalities to be seen more often in people with HIV.  Rather, people with abnormalities tended to be those who were older and who had hypertension, suggesting that factors other than HIV are more likely to be to blame.  We did not find any association between these abnormalities and brain problems (based on the tests that are undertaken as part of the study).

The Pharmacokinetic and clinical Observations in PeoPle over fifty (POPPY) Study: cohort profile

The Pharmacokinetic and clinical Observations in PeoPle over fifty (POPPY) Study: cohort profile

Authors

Bagkeris E, Burgess L, Mallon PW, Post FA, Boffito M, Sachikonye M, Anderson J, Asboe D, Garvey L, Vera J, Williams I, Johnson M, Babalis D, De Francesco D, Winston A, Sabin CA

Lay summary

This paper describes the study design and set-up for the POPPY Study.  We describe the data that are collected at each visit and the investigations that are performed.  We also describe the characteristics of people in the study and show that they are broadly similar to those of other people with HIV in the same age group who are attending the same hospitals. The paper can be used as a helpful reference when describing the POPPY study and its participants.

Research theme

High cellular monocyte activation in people living with human immunodeficiency virus on combination antiretroviral therapy and lifestyle-matched controls is associated with greater inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid

High cellular monocyte activation in people living with human immunodeficiency virus on combination antiretroviral therapy and lifestyle-matched controls is associated with greater inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid

Authors

Booiman T, Wit FW, Maurer I, De Francesco D, Sabin CA, Harskamp AM, Prins M, Garagnani P, Pirazzini C, Franceschi C, Fuchs D, Gisslen M, Winston A, Reiss P, Kootstra NA

Lay summary

There are concerns that even among people who are on effective ART, there may be some signs that the immune system remains activated, and this may lead to an increased risk of some age-related co-morbidities.  To investigate this, we took several measurements of the immune system in people with HIV in the COBRA study, and compared these to the measurements seen in people without HIV as well as to those seen in a group of blood donors from the Netherlands.  We found that whilst many of the measurements were similar in the three groups, the two groups in the COBRA study had some monocyte measurements that were different from those in the blood donors (although the measurements were similar among people with and without HIV in COBRA).  These results suggest that there may be factors other than HIV (for example, lifestyle factors) that may lead to changes in the immune system and that may play a role in the development of these co-morbidities.

Research theme

Terminal differentiation of T cells is strongly associated with CMV infection and increased in HIV-positive individuals on ART and lifestyle matched controls

Terminal differentiation of T cells is strongly associated with CMV infection and increased in HIV-positive individuals on ART and lifestyle matched controls

Authors

Booiman T, Wit FW, Girigorie AF, Maurer I, De Francesco D, Sabin CA, Harskamp AM, Prins M, Franceschi C, Deeks SG, Winston A, Reiss P, Kootstra NA.

Lay summary

It is often reported that people with HIV on effective treatment continue to have immune systems that are activated and that this contributes to the development of co-morbidities as people get older.  We compared several markers of immune activation and inflammation in the blood among people with and without HIV in the COBRA study and also to a group of blood donors in the Netherlands.  Although we found large differences between the measurements in people with HIV and those in the blood donors, we found similar differences between the measurements in the people without HIV in COBRA and the blood donors.  This suggested that HIV may not be the main factor that was causing these abnormal measurements.  After further studies, we found that people who had previously been infected with cytomegalovirus tended to have more abnormal immune systems, regardless of whether they also had HIV or not.  As prior cytomegalovirus infection was more common in the people in the COBRA study than in the blood donors, this appeared to explain why the COBRA participants had more abnormal immune systems.  The findings of this study emphasise that we need to consider all possible explanations for any study findings, before putting the blame on HIV.

Research theme