Publications

Publications

Plasma nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor concentration and their associations with liver and renal parameters in people living with HIV. eir associations with liver and renal parameters in people living with HIV.

Plasma nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor concentration and their associations with liver and renal parameters in people living with HIV. eir associations with liver and renal parameters in people living with HIV.

Authors

Wang X, Boffito M, Dickinson L, Bagkeris E, Khoo S, Post FA, Vera J, Williams I, Ndoutoumou A, Anderson J, Mallon P, McClure M, Winston A, Sabin C; POPPY Study.

Lay summary

We know very little about whether the amount of antiretroviral drug that a person gets is related to their risk of liver and kidney problems.  Through the POPPY study, we analysed associations between blood measures of liver and kidney function, and the amounts of some drugs (TDF, FTC, ABC and 3TC) that can be measured in a person’s blood.  While we found no associations between the amount of drug found in the blood and measures of liver disease, people with poorer kidney function tended to have higher levels of TDF, FTC and 3TC in their blood. 

Research theme

Factors associated with obesity in the Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People over Fifty (POPPY) cohort: an observational cross-sectional analysis.

Factors associated with obesity in the Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People over Fifty (POPPY) cohort: an observational cross-sectional analysis.

Authors

Savinelli S, De Francesco D, Feeney ER, Babalis D, Bagkeris E, Post FA, Boffito M, Williams I, Vera J, Johnson M, Anderson J, Sachikonye M, Winston A, Sabin C, Mallon P.

Lay summary

In this study we described the number of POPPY participants who were obese, and identified a range of factors that were associated with this.  Of the 1361 people in the study, around a quarter (24.6%) were obese.  Interestingly, people with HIV (either in the older or younger groups in POPPY) were less likely to be obese than the HIV-negative controls in the study.  Overall, people who were older, women, those of black African ethnicity and those who consumed alcohol were more likely to be obese.  Among the people with HIV, those who were obese tended to have higher CD4 counts than those who were not obese.  Obesity itself was associated with poorer physical health-related quality of life, and was also associated with several other clinical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.  Whilst people with HIV were less likely to be obese, there were some groups (e.g. women, people of black African origin and older people) in which obesity was common. 

Research theme

Cognitive function and drivers of cognitive impairment in a European and a Korean cohort of people with HIV

Cognitive function and drivers of cognitive impairment in a European and a Korean cohort of people with HIV

Authors

De Francesco D, Choi J, Choi JY, van Zoest RA, Underwood J, Schouten J, Ku NS, Kim WJ, Reiss P, Sabin CA, Winston A on behalf of the ComorBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) Collaboration and the Korean NeuroAIDS Project.

Lay summary

Although we know much about brain function in people with HIV in Europe and North America, we know less about this in people with HIV in Asia.  We compared brain problems in people participating in the COBRA study with those among people in a similar cohort in South Korea. Our results showed that although brain problems occurred in a similar proportion of people in the two cohorts, the risk factors for these were different.  In COBRA, people with brain problems were most likely to be of black African origin, whereas in the South Korean cohort people with brain problems tended to be those who were older, those with a lower level of education and those with anaemia (a lack of iron in the blood).  Our findings also showed that the type of brain problem was different in the two cohorts.  Our challenge is now to find out the reasons for these differences, as this may give us a better understanding of brain problems in people with HIV.

Validation of a novel multivariate method of defining HIV-associated cognitive impairment.

Validation of a novel multivariate method of defining HIV-associated cognitive impairment.

Authors

Underwood J, De Francesco D, Cole JH, Caan MWA, van Zoest RA, Schmand BA, Sharp DJ, Sabin CA, Reiss P, Winston A.

Lay summary

We currently don’t know the best way to measure brain problems in people with HIV.  To help to understand this, we used information from three studies (including the POPPY study) to describe the associations between brain problems (using a range of computer tests undertaken in the studies), self-reported problems with memory, and results from brain scans.  We followed standard algorithms to use the information from these tests to identify people thought to have problems with their brains.  In addition, we used a new method (a novel multivariate method) which we felt would be superior because, given the way in which it was developed, it is less likely to over-estimate the number of people with HIV experiencing brain problems.  Overall, the different methods of describing the frequency of brain problems using the standardised tests resulted in very different estimates of the proportion of people affected (ranging from 21% to 48%). In addition, this assessment did not correlate well with self-reported memory problems.  Brain scans themselves were only weakly associated with these others measures, although the most reliable method was our novel multivariate method.